Women In Islam, Statements from Quran and Hadith
1. WOMEN IN ISLAM
2. Introduction Family, society and ultimately the whole of mankind is treated by Islam on an ethical basis. Differentiation in gender is neither a credit nor a drawback for men or women. Therefore, when we talk about status of woman in Islam it should not lead us to think that Islam has no specific guidelines, limitations, responsibilities or obligations for men.
3. Most honorable of you… What makes one valuable and respectable in the eyes of Allah, the Creator of mankind and the universe, is neither one’s prosperity, position, intelligence, physical strength nor beauty, but only one’s God-consciousness and awareness. "O humankind! Verily! We have created you from a male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that you may know one another. Surely the noblest, most honorable of you in God’s sight is the most God-fearing , one best in piety and righteousness for God. Surely God is All-Knowing, All-Aware.“ The Qur’an, 49:13 .
4. Misconceptions about “Women in Islam” Muslim women are slaves to their husbands/inferior to them Women are forced by their husbands to cover Women are backward Women are oppressed in Islam Women are completely devoid of spiritual, social, economic or political rights
5. Equity In Islam, men and women are treated with equity: “natural justice” However, t he limits and rights for men and women may not be identical; because they are different regarding their Creation Abilities Roles and duties
6. Rights of Women in Islam Equality of reward for their deeds The right and duty to obtain education The right to obtain provisions from her father or brothers until she gets married The right to have their own independent property The right to provisions from the husband for all her needs and more. The right to work to earn money if they need it or want it The right to keep all her own money The right to express their opinion and be heard The right to negotiate marriage terms of her choice The right to obtain divorce from her husband The right to have custody of their children after divorce And more…
- 7. The spiritual aspect The economic aspect The social aspect The political and legal aspect “ Women in Islam” – Different Aspects
- 8. Spiritual Aspect In Islam there is absolutely no difference between men and women as far as their relationship to Allah is concerned, as both are promised the same reward for good conduct and the same punishment for evil conduct. Qur’an 74:38 "Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds“ Qur’an 3:195 “ …So their Lord accepted their prayers, (saying): I do not leave to waste the work of any of you (engaged in doing good), whether male or female. You are all one from the other… “
- 9. Spiritual Aspect Qur’an16:97 Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily to him will We give a new life that is good and pure, and We will bestow on such their reward according to the their actions. Quran 4.124 And whoever does deeds of righteousness, whether male or female, and is a (true) believer – such will enter Paradise…
- 10. Spiritual Aspect Woman is not responsible for the fall of man The Quran does not blame woman for the “fall of man,” nor does it view pregnancy and childbirth as punishments for “eating from the forbidden tree.” There is no hint that the first woman created by God is a creature of lesser worth than the first male. The Quran deals with the pair with perfect equity. Both are equally guilty of sinning; both are equally punished by God with expulsion from the Garden; and both are equally forgiven when they repent.
- 11. The Spiritual Aspect: Religious obligations and rewards: In terms of religious obligations and rewards, such as the Daily Prayers, Fasting, Zakat, and Pilgrimage, woman is essentially no different from man (small differences in practice of each obligation is due to differences in their nature) “ If any do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female, and have faith, they will enter paradise and not the least injustice will be done to them.” Quran 4:124 Surely, Men who surrender unto Allah, and women who surrender, and men who believe and women who believe, and men who obey and women who obey, and men who speak the truth and women who speak the truth …and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their modesty and women who guard (their modesty), and men who remember Allah and women who remember-Allah hath prepared for them forgiveness and a vast reward. Quran 33:35
- 12. The Social Aspect: As a child and an adolescent Despite the social acceptance of female infanticide among some Arabian tribes, the Quran forbade this custom, and considered it a crime like any other murder. "And when the female (infant) buried alive – is questioned, for what crime she was killed.“ Qur’an 81:8-9 Criticizing the attitudes of such parents who reject their female children, the Qur’an states: When news is brought to one of them, of (the Birth of) a female (child), his face darkens and he is filled with inward grief! With shame does he hide himself from his people because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain her on (sufferance) and contempt, or bury her in the dust? Ah! What an evil (choice) they decide on? Qur’an 16: 58-59
- 13. Among the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in this regard are the following: Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, God will enter him into Paradise. (Ibn Hanbal, No. 1957). Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I will come in the day of judgment as this (and he pointed with his two fingers held together). The Social Aspect: As a child and an adolescent
- 14. The right of females to seek knowledge is not different from that of males. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: "Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim". The Quran repeatedly commands all readers to read, to recite, to think, to contemplate, as well as to learn from the signs of Allah. In fact, the very first revelation to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was concerned with knowledge. Lectures of the Prophet were attended by audiences of both men and women By the time of the Prophet’s death, there were many women scholars The Social Aspect: Right to education
- 15. The female has the right to accept or reject marriage proposals Her consent is a prerequisite to the validity of the marital contract, according to the Prophet’s teachings Right to retain her family name Full right to her Mahr – marital gift Right to be satisfied by her husband The husband is responsible for the maintenance, protection, and overall leadership of the family, within the framework of consultation and kindness. Right to divorce her husband The Social Aspect: Rights in marriage
- 16. The Qur’an clearly indicates that marriage is sharing between the two halves of the society, and that its objectives, besides perpetuating human life, are emotional well-being and spiritual harmony. Its bases are love and mercy. “ And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts); verily in that are signs for those who reflect.” Quran 30:21 The Social Aspect: As a wife
- 17. They (your wives) are your garment and you are a garment for them. Quran 2:187 Just as a garment hides our nakedness, so do husband and wife, by entering into the relationship of marriage, secure each other’s chastity. The garment gives comfort to the body; so does the husband find comfort in his wife’s company and she in his. The garment is the grace, the beauty, the embellishment of the body, so too are wives to their husbands as their husbands are to them. The Social Aspect: As a wife
- 18. Islam does not consider woman "an instrument of the Devil", but rather the Qur’an calls her muhsana – a fortress against Satan because a good woman, by marrying a man, helps him keep to the path of righteousness in his life. For this reason, marriage was considered by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as a most virtuous act: "When a man marries, he has completed one half of his religion.“ Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was full of praise for virtuous and chaste women "The world and all things in the world are precious but the most precious thing in the world is a virtuous woman” The Social Aspect: As a wife
- 19. In his last sermon, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “ O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right and they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste…” The Social Aspect: As a wife
- 20. The Social Aspect: As a wife Four Wives “ If you fear that you will not be able to observe their rights with exact fairness when you marry the orphan girls (in your custody), you can marry, from among other women (who are permitted to you in marriage and) who seem good to you, two, or three, or four. However, if you fear that (in your marital obligations) you will not be able to observe justice among them, then content yourselves with only one …” Quran 4:3 In Islam, there is no relationship with other sex out of marriage (a legitimate contracted agreement) “ Four wives” is a limit, before Islam many people had more wives and they had to divorce with revelation of this verse There is another limit: marry 2,3, or 4 only if you believe you can treat them equally and with justice, otherwise only 1! For this reason although polygamy is allowed, number of Muslims practicing it is only a few. Who can guarantee to behave justly to all four without favoring one over another!
- 21. The Qur’an admonishes those men who oppress or ill-treat women: O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dowry you have given them – except when they have become guilty of open lewdness. On the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity . If you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike something and Allah will bring about through it a great deal of good. Qur’an 4:19 The Social Aspect: How to treat women?
- 22. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “ The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are best to their wives.” Prophet (pbuh) instructed Muslims regarding women: “ I commend you to be kind to women .” O nce Mu’awiyah asked the Prophet (peace be upon him), "What are the rights that a wife has over her husband?" The Prophet replied, " Feed her when you take your food, give her clothes to wear when you wear clothes, refrain from giving her a slap on the face or abusing her, and do not separate from your wife, except within the house." The Social Aspect: How to treat women?
- 23. Should marital disputes arise, the Quran encourages couples to resolve them privately in a spirit of fairness and probity. Under no circumstances does the Quran encourage, allow, or condone family violence or physical abuse . The Social Aspect: How to treat women?
- 24. Beating women: Men (those who are able to carry out their responsibilities) are the protectors and maintainers of women inasmuch as God has endowed some of people (in some respects) with greater capacity than others, and inasmuch as they (the men) spend of their wealth (for the family’s maintenance). Good, righteous women are the devoted ones (to God) and observant (of their husbands’ rights), who guard the secrets (family honor and property, their chastity, and their husband’s rights, especially where there is none to see them, and in the absence of men,) as God guards and keeps undisclosed (what should be guarded and private). And as for those women whose ill-will you have reason to fear, admonish them (to do what is right); then, (if that proves to be of no avail), remain apart from them in beds; then (if that too proves to be of no avail), beat them lightly (without beating them in their faces). Then, if they obey you (in your directing them to observe God’s rights and their marital obligations), do not seek ways against them (to harm them). (Be ever mindful that) God is indeed All-Exalted, All-Great. Quran 4:34 The Social Aspect: How to treat women?
- 25. Prophet (pbuh) stipulated in his last sermon that beating should be resorted to only if the wife "has become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct" , and that it should be done "in such a way as not to cause pain.” ( Authentic Traditions to this effect are found in Muslim, Tirmidhi, etc.) On the basis of these Traditions, all the authorities stress that this "beating", if resorted to at all, should be more or less symbolic – "with a toothbrush, or some such thing" (Tabari, quoting the views of scholars of the earliest times), or even "with a folded handkerchief" (Razi); and some of the greatest Muslim scholars are of the opinion that it is just barely permissible, and should preferably be avoided: and they justify this opinion by the Prophet’s personal feelings with regard to this problem. The Social Aspect: How to treat women?
- 26. Islam considers kindness to parents next to the worship of God. Quran says: "Show gratitude to Me and to your parents: to Me is (your final) destiny." Quran 31:14 Moreover, the Qur’an has a special recommendation for the good treatment of mothers "And we have enjoined upon man (to be good) to his parents: His mother bears him in weakness upon weakness…“ Qur’an 31:14 The Social Aspect: As a mother
- 27. The Economic Aspect In the 19th century European women did not have the right to own their own property . In Britain, perhaps the first country to give women some property rights, laws were passed in the 1860’s known as "Married Women Property Act." In Germany the wife was denied any control over her property until 1922 by civil law!
- 28. The Economic Aspect Islam provides a woman with: Right to possess personal property- buy, sell, mortgage, lease without anyone’s permission being required. "Whatever men earn, they have a share of that and whatever women earn, they have a share in that." Qur’an 4:31 In Islam the wife’s property and earnings are under her full control and for her use alone. No matter how rich the wife might be, she is not obliged to act as a co-provider unless she herself voluntarily chooses to do so. Right to seek Employment Right to Inheritance Financial security
- 29. The Political Aspect Islam provides a woman with: Right to vote Participation in political affairs Women can be in leadership positions Participation in public affairs – During the Caliphate of Omar Ibn al-Khattab, a woman argued with him in the mosque, proved her point, and caused him to declare in the presence of people: “The woman is right and Omar is wrong.”
- 30. Even with such distorted image of women in Islam in the West it is worth mentioning that: The history of Muslims is rich with women of great achievements in all walks of life from as early as the seventh century Out of every 5 Muslim converts, 4 are women! The status which women reached in the west was achieved through a long struggle and sacrifice on woman’s part and only when society needed her contribution and work, during the two world wars, and due to the escalation of technological change. In the case of Islam such compassionate and dignified status was decreed more than 14 centuries ago, not because it reflects the environment of the seventh century, nor under the threat or pressure of women and their organizations, but rather because of its essential truthfulness. Women in Islam – Worth to mention
Hijaab of the Ansaari women
I am looking for the hadith that gives reference to the Ansar women appearing as crows after the verse 33:59 was revealed. It was my understanding that this was considered as proof that black as a color for hijaab was Sunnah, and therefore mustahab. Could you tell me where I could find this hadith, and include its volume and number please?
Praise be to Allaah.
The hadeeth to which you refer was narrated by Abu Dawood, may Allaah have mercy on him, in al-Sunan, from Umm Salamah who said:
“When the aayah ‘… to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies…’ [al-Ahzaab 33:59 – interpretation of the meaning] was revealed, the women of the Ansaar came out looking as if there were crows on their heads, because of their clothing.” (Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitaab al-Libaas, Baab fi qawlihi ta’aala: yubneena ‘alayhinna jalaabeebihinna).
The author of ‘Awn al-Ma’bood fi Sharh Sunan Abi Dawood said, commenting on this phrase:
“Their veils were likened to crows because of their black colour.”
However, it is not a condition of hijaab that the clothes should be black, but it may be better because it is more concealing. For the conditions of Muslim woman’s hijaab.
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and Peace and Blessings be upon Muhammad, His Apostle, the constant bearer of good tidings and the constant warner to the whole of mankind.
The following is a group of Hadiths concerned with some Islamic regulations for women. All hadiths are certain and accurate, i.e. mentioned in Sahih Muslim and/or Al Bukhari or agreed upon by the prominent hadith scholars.
The Entire Collection contains 40 Important Hadith For Women,I have divided in 4 parts.Each part contains 10 Imp. Hadiths . This is Part-1 contains 10 Imp Hadiths.
1 : Woman’s Pray at Home is better than Going to Mosque
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said: “Do not prevent women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc) from (praying at) mosques. Yet, their prayer at home is better (for them).”
2 : Woman’s Freedom to Go out for their Needs
Narrated by ‘Aisha: Allah’s Apostle said: “You (women) have been allowed to go out for your needs.”
3 : Evils behind Unnecessary Socialising of Unveiled Women
Narrated by Ibn Mas’ud: Allah’s Apostle said: “(Unveiled) woman is a cause of corruption. Once she goes out Satan beautifies her in the eyes of men (to seduce her as well as them). At her home, she is the closest (to the face) of her Lord.”
4 : Woman should take the Permission of Her Husband before Going out
Narrated by Ibn Umar: One of the wives of Umar (bin Al-Khattab) used to offer the Fajr and the ‘Isha’ prayer in congregation in the Mosque. She was asked why she had come out for the prayer as she knew that Umar disliked it, and he has great “ghaira” (self-respect). She replied, “What prevents him from stopping me from this act?” The other replied, “The statement of Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h): ‘Do not stop Allah’s women-slave from going to Allah’s Mosques. “
5: Prohibition on Women Regarding Putting Perfumes when Going out
Narrated by Abu Mousa Al Ash’ari: Allah’s Apostle said: “If a woman uses perfume and passes the people so that they may get its odour, she is so-and-so, meaning severe remarks. (i.e. about to commit adultery).”
6 : Prohibition on Women regarding showing her Charms when Going out
Narrated by Fudhalah ibn ‘Ubaid: Allah’s Apostle said: “Three persons are doomed …. Among them a woman whose husband is not present and provides for her; yet she shows her charms to (foreign) men.”
7 : Women should not travel without Mahram
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas: Allah’s Apostle said: “A woman should not travel except with a Dhu-Mahram (her husband or a man with whom that woman cannot marry at all according to the Islamic Jurisprudence).” A man got up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I intend to go to such and such an army and my wife wants to perform Hajj.” The Prophet said (to him), “Go along with her (to Hajj).”
8 : Women should have their own Entrance to the Mosque
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said: “Should we leave this entrance (at the Mosque, i.e. Al Masjid AL Nabawi ) only for women to enter.” The sub-narrator, Ibn Nafie’ said: “Ibn ‘Umar did not use this entrance (after that) until his death.”
9 : Women should not walk in the middle of the street
Narrated by Abi Ausaid Al Ansari: While Allah’s Apostle was going out of the mosque he saw all men and women in the road. He told the women: “You should wait behind. You should not walk in the middle of the road.” The narrator said: “women afterwards used to walk so close to the wall so that their dresses often stick to it.”
10 : Women should perform Tawaf without mingling with men
Narrated by Ibn Jarieh said ‘Ata had told him when Ibn Hashim prevented women from performing Tawaf with men: how could he prevent them while the wives of the Prophet performed Tawaf with men?” I (i.e. Ibn Jarieh) said: before or after (the verse of) hijab (was revealed)? He said: “Upon my life, after hijab.” “How could they intermix with men?” I asked. “They didn’t,” he replied. “’Aisha used to perform Tawaf at a dividing space from men; she didn’t intermingle with them.”
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HADITH FOR WOMEN ONLY
Narrated by Ibn Jarieh said ‘Ata had told him when Ibn Hashim prevented women from performing Tawaf with men: how could he prevent them while the wives of the Prophet performed Tawaf with men?” I (i.e. Ibn Jarieh) said: before or after (the verse of) hijab (was revealed)? He said:
“Upon my life, after hijab.” “How could they intermix with men?” I asked. “They didn’t,” he replied. “’Aisha used to perform Tawaf at a dividing space from men; she didn’t intermingle with them.”